CITI Books
Interconnecting the Network of Networks
Eli M. Noam (MIT Press, 2001)

Synopsis: This book describes the transformation of telecommunications from national network monopolies to a new system, the network of networks, and the glue that holds it together, interconnection. By their very nature, monopoly-owned networks provided a small number of standardized, nationwide services. Over the past two decades, however, new forces in the world economy began to unravel this traditional system. The driving force behind the change was the shift toward an information-based economy. Especially for large organizations, the price, control, security, and reliability of telecommunications became variables requiring organized attention. Thus monopoly began to give way to the "network of networks," the foundation of today's telecommunications and Internet infrastructure.
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Principles of Modern Communications Technology
A. Michael Noll (Artech House, 2001)

Synopsis: This book is a broad introduction to the basic technological principles of communication technologies and systems. Human physiology and factors, key inventors and business people, and basic principles are integrated together to explain the key concepts and development of modern communication systems and technologies. The book uses modern communication systems-such as the compact disc, television, the telephone, and the computer-as the motivation to study their basic principles, such as analog-to-digital conversion, spectrum and bandwidth, packet and circuit switching, modulation and multiplexing, and electricity and electronics. The material is presented in a manner understandable to liberal arts students and other non-technologists.
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The Economics, Technology and Content of Digital TV
Darcy Derbarg (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999)

Synopsis: As the world of television moves from analog to digital, political and economic forces are being brought to bear on companies as they attempt to deal with changes occurring in their industries. This book is divided into four sections each dealing with one aspect of the transition from analog to digital TV broadcasting. The first section presents the various technologies. Section two presents information about consumer TV viewing and includes examples of innovative, experimental interactive programs. Economics and financial issues are addressed from a variety of perspectives in section three. Section four concludes the book with a look at the international environment and the history of digital TV globally.
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New Approaches to Minority Media Ownership
Columbia Institute for Tele-Information (Federal Communications Law Journal, 51:3, May 1999)

Synopsis: Past initiatives to increase minority media ownership had been governmental in nature, including the FCC's minority ownership tax certificate program and PCS license preferences. However, constitutional and political challenges to such government sponsored programs put their future in question. The alternative approach toward greater diversity of ownership includes market-based mechanisms.

Rather than engaging in a policy debate, this Journal provides an economic review of minority ownership programs, and examines other aspects of minority ownership. Issues discussed include: the minority tax certificate program (the FCC program, repealed in 1995, is up for review this year); the nexus between ownership and diversity; the impact of the repeal of minority preferences in spectrum auctions; and minority ownership in the new media and Internet sector. It also examines various market-based approaches to develop minority ownership in the media sector, including venture capital, mutual funds, investor cooperatives, debt financing, and micro-credits.
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Public Television in America
Eli Noam & Jens Walterman (Bertelsmann Stiftung, 1999)

Synopsis: In Europe, television began in a public format and public broadcasting defined the medium. But in America, public television was created to fill the programming void left by commercial TV, and tolerated as a belated addition rather than as a co-equal. For decades, commercial television was controlled by the three networks ABC, NBC, and CBS, the economic imperative of which led towards entertainment. Education, by default, was served by public television, always the weaker part of the broadcast system in terms of resources and audience. Money was only part of the problem. The other was organization and vision. During the 1980s, cable television expanded rapidly, and with it, private cable channels. Public TV largely missed out on the opportunity to enter the era of multichannel television. Today, public television is again at a major crossroad. Technologically, digitalization, multicasting, and the Internet provide a new challenge. Institutionally, the structure of the entire system is under scrutiny. And finally, its long-term funding mechanism is less certain than ever.
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The New Investment Theory of Real Options and its Implication for Telecommunications Economics
James Alleman & Eli Noam (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999)

Synopsis: The issue of costing and pricing in the telecommunications industry has been hotly debated for the last twenty years and we are still wrestling over the cost of the local exchange for access by interexchange and competitive local exchange carriers, as well as for universal service funding. With the advent of competition, the historical costing schemes had to change. Federal regulators wanted to ensure that monopoly rates did not subsidize competitive offerings.

As a result, various costing methodologies were devised to allocate costs among the dominant carriers' services. It is in this light that the papers have been compiled for this book. Real options theory attempts to consider management's flexibility in valuation analysis and corrects the deficiencies of the traditional discounted present-value and decision tree analyses. This book sets forth an introduction and overview of the subject, and then provides the reader with a primer on real options. The volume highlights the controversies that surround the application of real options in the telecommunications industry; however, the editors have effectively separated the issues of application from those of interpretation.
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The Future of Digital Television
Darcy Derbarg (Prometheus, 16:2, June 1998)

Synopsis: Digital TV presents a range of technical, business, and content issues for companies, industries and society,. Among the most central issues are the technology itself, which is not well understood by the general public, the likelihood of a successful and timely distribution of digital television in the US and elsewhere, and speculation about future content. This symposium issue covers four broad topics: delivery systems and technology issues, impact on content and programming, the changing economics of TV industries, and international perspective.
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Opening Networks to Competition: The Regulation and Pricing of Access
David Gabel and David F. Weiman (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998)

Synopsis: This book addresses the related problems of regulating and pricing access in network industries. Interconnection between network suppliers raises questions of how to sustain competition and realize economic efficiency. New entrants must have access to customers in a competitive industry, but the very nature of network industries limits potential entrants. The large fixed and sunk costs of constructing networks and the difficulty in acquiring the expertise and competencies embodied in the managerial and organizational structure of incumbents in the network industry make it difficult to enter this marketplace. As a result, new entrants, realizing that they may not be able to provide customers with service comparable to that of the incumbents, often look to negotiate an interconnection agreement.

This book is divided into two parts. Part I assesses regulation and pricing access in network industries from an analytical and policy perspective. Part II presents a variety of case studies examining interconnection issues over time and across industries. The book concludes with the idea that no single economic model or theory is appropriate for all network industries and that one needs to factor in the policy objectives, economic forces, and trade-offs for the specific industry before arriving at a final policy decision.
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Telecommunications in Africa
Eli M. Noam (Oxford University Press, 1998)

Synopsis: In mapping the state of telecommunications in Africa, this forthcoming volume addresses the issue as a link in the chain of the regional development process. Telecommunications are vital to the emerging information sectors and are studied in the context of their contributions to economic and social development in various African nations. This book charts the past and future trends in government policy to utilize the telecommunications network as a strategic resource for their own nations as well as for the region.
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Employment Problems in an Information Age in "Advances in Industrial and Labor Relations
David Lewin, David Lipskey & Donna Sackell

Synopsis: Like previous volumes in this series, Volume 4 well demonstrates that the field of industrial relations embraces a wide variety of issues, scholarly disciplines, and research methodologies. This volume contains studies of unions as institutions, dispute resolution procedures, the distribution of human capital in selected industries, the organization of work, and the unionization and collective bargaining processes. The authors are labor economists, sociologists, psychologists, and institutionalists; the methodologies they have employed vary in techniques for gathering data-including field research, examination of secondary data, and literature reviews-and in the type of analysis, including qualitative and quantitative, descriptive and predictive treatments.
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Globalism and Localism in Telecommunications
Eli M. Noam & A.J. Wolfson (Elsevier Science Publishers, February 1997)

Synopsis: The telecommunications industry has long been organized along geographic and product lines that serve as both a shield and a weapon. The industry is being transformed by contradictory forces: on one hand there is a trend toward global expansion by carriers and on the other hand there is fragmentation and entry in local communications. These transformations represent opposite sides of the same issue: a blurring of market boundaries created through technical innovation, policy liberalization, user initiatives, and entrepreneurialism. The result is a complex web of overlapping network definitions, product and service markets, carrier types, technical standards, government policies, financial arrangements, and cooperative ventures. As these networks become interconnected into a mesh-like network of networks, distinctions among local, long distance, and international telecommunications fade away. However the social superstructure does not change as rapidly. Domestic interests and national sovereignty will not be supplanted by technology. Telecommunications markets and regulatory forces will continue to clash.
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Highway of Dreams: A Critical View Along the Information Superhighway
A. Michael Noll (Lawrence Erlbam Associates, 1997)

Synopsis: In Highway of Dreams, A. Michael. Noll focuses his over three decades of experience in telecommunications research, marketing, management, and policy on today's telecommunication superhighway. After parodying the technological Utopia offered by the promoters of the superhighway, Highway of Dreams reviews the history of the telecommunication superhighway pointing out how it had its beginnings in the interactive TV and broadband highway of the wired cities of over two decades ago.
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The Role of Wireless Communications in the Public Network
Alex Wolfson (Telecommunications Policy 21:5, June 1997) (Special Edition)

Synopsis: After almost a century of two-way wireless telephone communications, economics and technology have converged to create a viable new option for local infrastructure. The "wireless local loop" is being implemented in several areas of the world as first-generation local networks. In developed countries such as the United States, it permits the upgrading of existing wireline networks and competitive entry. In less developed countries, it may accelerate the construction of basic infrastructure. Many policy issues accompany this transition from wire to wireless local networks. To address them, this journal presents a series of articles dealing, in particular, with the impact of wireless local loops on universal service.
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Telecommunications in Latin America
Eli M. Noam (Oxford University Press, 1997)

Synopsis: Latin America is currently undergoing a dramatic political and social transformation, reflected in a series of events ranging from a continent-wide return to democracy, serious debt refinancing efforts, inflation controls and the privatization of large state-owned companies. Nowhere can this transformation be more apparent than in the telecommunications industry.
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Telecommunications in Western Asia and the Middle East
Eli M. Noam (Oxford University Press, 1997)

Synopsis: Covering a broad regional spectrum - the Middle East, South Asia and Central Asia - this volume identifies the differences and changed in the various countries of the study area. Evolutionary stages of technology diffusion are traced in the context of telecommunications development.
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Telecommunications Law: Unscrambling the Signals, Unbundling the Law
CITI Symposium (Columbia Law Review, 97:4, May 1997)

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Information Superhighways Revisited
Bruce L. Egan (Artech House 1996)

Synopsis: From market trends, to regulatory issues, to economic considerations, this book addresses the key factors shaping the future of the broadband network technology and provides tools needed to make, wise, more informed decisions on planning, policy, and investment strategy. The book begins by explaining technological concepts and terms, and goes on to examine current multimedia frontrunners such ads digital signal compression, compact disc (CD) technology, and the internet, and shows who the mass-market winners and losers will be and why.
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Jurisprudence of Ratings

Synopsis: The United States was in the midst of a rush to increase reliance on systems of labeling, ratings, and classifications of information, largely concerning questions of violence, profanity, and sexual content. Amidst the proliferation of legislative proposals, industry responses, and private group activity, a new jurisprudence may have been emerging, a rethinking of the relationship between individual listener and industrial speaker and the relationship between government and manufacturer of information. These tendencies were heightened by recent federal telecommunications legislation that ushers in the era of the V-chip and Internet content regulation.
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Private Networs and Public Ojectives
Eli Noam & Aine Nishuilleabhain (Elsevier Science, October 1996)

Synopsis: Much attention is accorded to the transition, in many countries, of a government-owned monopoly network into private ownership. But perhaps of greater significance is the quieter evolution from a public network system to a series of private, intra-organizational and closed-user-group networks that are apart from, but connected to, the public system.
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American Regulatory Federalism and Telecommunications Infrastructure
Paul Teske (Lawrence Erlbaum Assoiciates, 1995)

Synopsis: Focusing on regulation in the 1990s, this volume, through the perspectives of economists, lawyers, political scientists, telecommunications consultants and practitioners, tackles the following questions:
  • How are states regulating telecommunications in the brave new world of global markets, fiber optics, and digital technology?
  • Do states vary significantly in their regulatory models?
  • Would a different federal-state relationship better serve national telecommunications goals in the future?

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Quality and Reliability of Telecommunications Infrastructure
William Lehr (Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates, 1995)

Synopsis: The birth of this volume rests with a policy debate that began to take shape in the United States in the late 1980s when a series of well-publicized incidents raised public concern that the reliability of the telecommunications infrastructure was threatened. This volume offers the first collection of economic and policy research to focus specifically on the quality and reliability issues posed by modern communications infrastructure. Its goal is to introduce new analytical tools and present recent empirical evidence to better inform the public debate regarding regulatory policy.
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Television Self-Regulation and Ownership Regulation: The American Experience
Cardozo Arts & Enterntainment Journal, 13:3, 1995)

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Asymmetric Deregulation: The Dynamics of Telecommunications Policy in Europe and the United States
Eli M. Noam & Gerard Pogorel (Ablex Publishers, 1994)

Synopsis: This project examines regulatory disequilibrium between Europe and the US arising from the restructuring of domestic telecommunications systems. Whereas US policy during the last decade has emphasized competition of economies over scale, in Europe cooperation and ISDN integration have commanded a great deal of attention. This book analyzes industrial and trade economies characteristic of the semi-liberalized international network environment.
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Cable Act of 1992: Freedom of Expression Issues
(Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal: COMM/ENT 17;1, 1994)

Synopsis: This volume addresses the Cable TV Act of 1992, an act which reassessed the constitutional treatment of cable TV and of electronic media in general. Provoked by direct challenges to the law, cross-industry mergers, and the Clinton Administration's proposals on open access (Title VII regulation), noted academics and other researchers were compelled to examine new regulatory issues involving all electronic media, and to add the dimension of constitutional discussion to the regulatory policy debate.
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Telecommunications in the Pacific Basin
Douglas A. Conn, Seisuke Komatsuzaki & Eli Noam (Oxford University Press, 1994)
Synopsis: Two trends have accelerated telecommunications development within the Pacific Basin: deregulation and liberalization in the US and Japan, and the formulation of national industrial policy elsewhere. This has important consequences for international collaboration and for trade in telecommunications equipment and services. Countries profiled include China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Australia, Hong Kong, Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, Canada, New Zealand, Japan and the United States.
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The International Market for Film and Television Programs
Brenda Dervin, Joel C. Millonzi & Eli M. Noam

Synopsis: This book applies economic trade theory and industrial organization theory, as well as perspectives from media studies, to investigate distribution channels, program mix, pricing and national policies characteristic of the international program services market.
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Technologies without Boundaries: On Telecommunications in a Global Age
Ithiel de Sola Pool (Spanish Edition, Fondo de Cultura Economica, 1993) (Also available in English and Chinese)

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Japan's ISDN Revolution
Osamu Inoue, Tatsuo Kawasaki, Takeshi Kawauchi, Tadashi Mizuno, Eli M. Noam, Jerry Nowicki, Kent M. Takeda, Hisashi Yazawa. Intruduction by Kohji Ohboshi (Intertec Publishing Corp., 1992)

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Technologies without Boundaries: On Telecommunications in a Global Age
Ithiel de Sola Pool (Chinese Edition, China Times Publishing Company, 1992) (also available in Spanish and English)

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Telecommunications in Europe
Eli M. Noam (Oxford University Press, 1992)

Synopsis: This book deals with the evolution of powerful monopoly institutions in the communications field - the public broadcasters - and the dramatic changed that have taken place throughout Europe and transformed the media landscape. Providing a comprehensive view of European broadcasting systems, this book also includes an empirical study of the open television system's impact on other and more traditional media, such as theatre, books and film.
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The Telecommunications Revolution: Past, Present, and Future
Harvey M. Sapolsky, Rhonda J. Crane, W. Russel Neumann & Eli M. Noam (Routledge, 1992)

Synopsis: Regulatory or legislative authorities are causing the restructuring of telecommunications industries away from the monopoly structures that characterized telecommunications in the past and towards increased competition, deregulation and privatization. In The Telecommunications Revolution international policy-makers and scholars seek to explain the roots and consequences of the changes, exploring the past and present and looking towards the future. The book thus presents a unique perspective on the dramatic changes sweeping telecommunications worldwide, putting the regulatory environment into a theoretical and historical context of the times.
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The Telecommunications Revolution: Past, Present, and Future (Japanese Translation, Japan UNI Agency, Inc., 1992)

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Television in Europe
Eli Noam (Oxford University Press, 1992

Synopsis: Television in Europe deals with the evolution of powerful monopoly institutions in the communications field - the public broadcasters - and the dramatic changes that have taken place throughout Europe and transformed the media landscape.
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After the Breakup: Assessing the New Post-AT&T Divestiture Era
Barry G. Cole (Columbia University Press, 1991)

Synopsis: This volume describes the current state of US telecommunications, and how the industry has changed in the first decade since the AT&T divesture. This book opens with the three principal figures of divesture - William Baxter, Charles Brown and Judge Harold Greene - providing recollections and current perspectives. It then examines the structural environment of the industry, and the service and economic issues involved.
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After the Breakup: Assessing the New Post-AT&T Divestiture Era
(Japanese translation: Columbia University Press, 1991)

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Integrated Broadband Networks: The Public Policy Issues
Martin C.J. Elton (Elsevier, 1991)

Synopsis: In the late eighties, there had been a great deal of discussion in industry, in government and in the press about telephone companies entering the traditional market of cable television companies. Often this has been linked to the use of high-capacity optical fiber as a replacement for low-capacity copper telephone wire, and in particular, to the concept of an Integrated Broadband Network (IBN). As the controversies of the early nineties make it clear, IBNs raised some decidedly challenging issues of public policy. This book is divided into three parts. The first adopts the perspective of subscribers. Its chapters consider some of the new services the technology may support and what can be predicted about customers' reactions to them. The second part deals with technical matters pertaining to the technology and its economics. Since the engineers are writing for economists, among others, and vice versa, readers will require no specialist knowledge of either discipline to follow the important arguments that are presented here.
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Price Caps and Incentive Regulation in Telecommunications
Michael A. Einhorn (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991)

Synopsis: This book analyzes economic inefficiencies in the telecommunications industries. Market uncertainty and imperfect information are explored, as are counteracting mechanisms. The issues could include planning and pricing under demand and cost uncertainty; information asymmetries among interacting agents; risk-bearing mechanisms which inhibit efficient decision-making; disincentives to optimal production and consumption levels; and market externalities which erode pricing efficiency. The implications for telecommunications policy concern the promotion of innovation and research, and the use of price-setting and compensatory strategies which attempt to correct for access and usage externalities.
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Information Superhighways
Bruce L. Egan (Artech House, 1990)

Synopsis: This research considers both the financial feasibility and social desirability of advanced telecommunications networks within the US. Two major questions are addressed: Do the costs of advanced public network infrastructures justify the expenditures required in private and/or public markets? Which political and institutional environments are most conducive to developing technologically advanced telecommunications networks?
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Technologies without Boundaries: On Telecommunications in a Global Age
Ithiel de Sola Pool, edited by Eli M. Noam (Harvard University Press, 1990 (also available in Spanish and Chinese)

Synopsis: This book extends Pool's analysis of the social, political and cultural consequences of new communications technology into the international realm. It emphasizes trends in four main areas: changes in the spatial patterns of economic and social activity, threats to liberties, new forms of social cohesion and individuality, and environmental implications.
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Cable TV Advertising: In Search of the Right Formula
Rajeev Batra & Rashi Glazer (Greenwood Press, 1989)

Synopsis: This volume brought together leading academic researchers and industry professionals to discuss the underlying factors that determine where cable TV advertising was in 1989, and what could and should be done in the future. The authors are united in their belief that cable TV advertising had not lived up to its original promise because key players-system operators, programmers, and advertisers-still acted as if cable TV were an alternative to traditional mass audience broadcast rather than a fundamentally new and unique medium. If the industry were to realize its promise, the contributors argue, it would happen only in light of a fundamental reassessment of its strategic position within the overall communications and information-technology environment. Taken together, the chapters presented here offered both new insights to industry professionals and new research ideas to students of cable communications.
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The Cost of Libel: Economic and Policy Implications
Everette E. Dennis & Eli M. Noam (Columbia University Press, 1989)

Synopsis: Other than generalized observations of the chilling effect of libel rules and the high cost of litigation, there had been little examination of libel issues from an economic perspective. To fill this gap, the Gannett Center for Media Studies and the Center for Telecommunications and Information Studies at the Columbia Business school commissioned studies from several prominent scholars in the field, presenting the results at a June, 1986 conference. In The Cost of Libel, the editors have collected these papers, which cover a wide range of related economic and legal issues: from analyzing the cost of libel litigation and defining it as an economic problem, to suggesting revision and reform.
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Law of International Telecommunications in the United States
Stephen R. Barnett, Michael Botein & Eli M. Noam (Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, 1988)

This book on the Law of International Telecommunications in the United States was part of an ongoing research project on the international communications system undertaken at the Max Planck Institute for Foreign and International Private Law in Hamburg. Like similar reports on other countries, this report was based upon questionnaires prepared at the Institute and reproduced at the end of the volume. The questionnaires were identical for all countries in order to facilitate comparative evaluations of the national reports. They served as guidelines without, however, interfering with the authors' individual judgment in adapting their presentation to the special national situation. The project would include comparative analyses of key problem areas and the examination of the role of international organizations, the task of which was facilitation of international communications.
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Services in Transition: The Impact of Information Technologies on the Service Sector
Gerard R. Faulhaber, Eli M. Noam & Roberta Tasley (Ballinger, 1986)

Synopsis: Two simultaneous revolutions whook the American business community: the extraordinary boom in computer and telecommunications technology, and the service sector's rapidly growing share of the gross national product. Two renowned scholarly institutes-the Fishman-Davidson Center for the Study of the Service Sector and Columbia University's Center for Telecommunications and Information Studies-join forces with the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School to explore the crucial questions with vision and breadth. Key practitioners and scholars from both the service sector and the telecommunications industry exchanged information about their respective fields. Services in Transition offers a probing analysis of the interaction between technology and the service sector.
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Technological Innovation, Regulation, and the Monetary Economy
Colin Lawrence & Robert Shay (Ballinger, 1986)

The financial services industry was revolutionized by dramatic advances in the application of computers and telecommunications. Technological Innovation, Regulation, and the Monetary Economy focuses on the many disturbing implications that these technological advances had for the use and control of money and for the future of our financial institutions. This provocative volume is the result of a special symposium held on March 15, 1985, at Columbia University. The distinguished contributors include Nobel laureate James Tobin and other leading scholars on regulation, policy and monetary theory.
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Tracing New Orbits: Cooperation and Competition in Satellite Development
Donna A. Demac (Columbia University Press, 1986)

Synopsis: Modern satellite technology has made communications truly global. Satellite links have become important for connecting corporate headquarters and offices overseas, news organizations and foreign correspondents, island nations in the Pacific, and many other entities all over the world. Tracing New Orbits examines the important poliy issues and political controversies raised by rapidly expanding global telecommunications networks in 1986. How will transborder broadcasting affect national broadcasting systems? Do nations receiving transmissions they do not want have the right to complain of "cultural invasion"? Can the originator of such a signal properly acuse the unintended receiver of "piracy"? What ground rules should be put in place as countries proceed with plans for manufacturing aboard space platforms that will be owned by numerous governments and coporations?
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Video Media Competition: Regulation, Economics and Technology
Eli M. Noam (Columbia University Press, 1985)

Synopsis: Rapid technological change, entrepreneurial initiative, and new government regulatory policies were dramatically transforming the structure and function of American television. These changes led to increased competition among conventional broadcasting, cable TV, and satellite transmission, and a subsequent increase in government regulation of these media. The very concept of regulating electronic media was challenged by some groups as a direct affront to the First Amendment. Others, however, argue that the development of these new technologies is leading to a disturbing concentration of power over communications by a handful of major media firms, and that therefore government safeguards in the public interest are more important than ever. This divergence of views has led to widespread debate among groups with conflicting interests and viewpoints. Video Media Competition provides a series of unique empirical and regulatory studies that go beyond the current rhetoric, and investigate the reality and extent of such rivalry.
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Telecommunications Regulation Today and Tomorrow
Eli M. Noam (Harcourt Brace Janovich, 1984)

Synopsis: With the breakup of the Bell System, telecommunications rapidly changed from a rigidly-regulated, monopolistic industry to a highly competitive one. In this volume, a team of economic, regulatory and legal experts combine their talents to examine what lies ahead. They explore the changing roles of the Federal Communications Commission and state public service commissions, the new roles of AT&T and its local operating companies, the future competition among communications networks, telephone and cable television, and the effect of deregulation on the charges, costs and subsidies of local television rates.
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